Celestine or Celestite with the chemical formula SrSO4, composed of strontium sulfate, it's so called because sometimes seen in soft blue. This mineral is brittle, crystalline forms or sometimes fiber is formed. The most Celestite reserves located in Semnan province in Iran. Celestite majorly is the main ore in the production of Sr and usually extracted in the open way and manually.

The most important industrial use of strontium is as following:
In the fireworks for making red lacquer, and the military industry and its various components such as strontium nitrate, peroxide and oxalate used to make flares and tracer.

Strontium Phosphate used to produce fluorescent lamps; Strontium Chloride in toothpastes for sensitive teeth, as well as an alternate for Barite used in drilling mud for oil wells. Strontium Carbonate is used in the manufacture of color television picture tubes.

Strontium Oxide and Barium Oxide used for radiation protection in television and ceramic ferrite magnet. This mineral primarily used in pulps of glass, porcelain and ceramic glaze to increase hardness and transparency.
In the Electro-Ceramic industry, Strontium Carbonate and Iron Oxide mixed at high temperatures and converted to ferrite. The resulting powder is sintered at 1200 ° C and a substance obtained with very high magnetic properties.

Also Strontium carbonate used for the electrolysis of Zinc Ingot; in this way ZnSO4 contains of PbSO4 that Strontium Carbonate separated metal Pb hence Zn purity increased accordingly.

Celestin is a nice mineral for collectors. The color of blue sky in Celestite is very beautiful and unique among the royal minerals. One of the beautiful colors for it is blue with bright yellow of sulfur. Beautiful crystals and its attractive blue color are very valuable for any collectors or other persons.

Strontium Carbonate and its compounds have other usages in medicine, metallurgy industry, providing grease, dye and so on.

In psychology and psychiatry it's widely used as a worthy ore. Medicinal compounds made from it will increase the skills of rhetoric, writing and public relations, and helping to verbal messages and brings high power of comprehension.



Barite is the natural compound of Barium Sulfate in formula of BaSO4 and known as Heavy Spar which is a part of the sulfates. Barite named from the Greek word of Barys meaning as special heavy.

The crystallization system is orthorhombic. The most important minerals contains Barite are (BaSO4) and Witherite (BaCO3) the abundance of Barite is more than Witherite. Barite found in the nature as veins and layer.

Barite is normally white with light gray colors but may be blue, brown or also seen black. Barite is a mineral oil (Opeque) with a pearl luster. Specimens of Type number one seen as an orthorhombic crystals but for commercial Barite seen as grainy, crystalline masses or pebble.


The mineral density is high, and is about 4.3 to 4.6 g/cm3. This specification of high density helps to identify the Barite. The hardness of Barite has a considerable range and variable of 2.5 to 3.5 and usually produces different areas of Barite with different hardness.

This mineral is used in various industries. Because of much Barite reserves in most parts of the world and the special features of this ore, has found many applications in various industries. Barite mainly used as filler to make drilling mud, rubber, desirable papers, cable, plastics, manufacturing and processing of caoutchouc, paints, ceramics, construction of transparent glass, porcelain industry, cosmetics, white ink and varnish correction, making clothes insulation, brake pads, spark plugs for automobiles, vacuum tubes, fireworks, explosive materials, alloy, radiation protection, fluorescent lamps, in nuclear reactors, Pharmacy and Medicine.



Plaster is gypsum naturally calcium sulfate of hydrous crystalline forms can be found.  Cast mine after they are like lime kiln to a temperature close to 180 ° C heat so that the number of water molecules loses their crystallization and to form gypsum as a building material and molding becomes applicable. Usually powdered chalk with their own mills and sold in bags or in bulk. Chalk powder is desirable to be smaller than 0.15 mm.

In most cases, a combination of gypsum and pure water is used for various applications, although in cases of need by adding different materials, setting time can be reduced. For example, by adding 1% sodium chloride and water to mix plaster setting time high and if the salt more than 4 percent setting time increases. (30 minutes)

2CaSO4 · 4H2O → 2CaSO4 · H2O + 3H2O

Color white plaster natural form and may be due to organic impurities clay and iron oxide gray, gray-blue, pink or yellow can be seen. Monoclinic system gypsum crystallization, specific gravity of 1.5 to 2 and 2/32 is tough. Gypsum is suloble in hydrochloric acid and hot water. Pure gypsum with 20.9 percent H2O and 32.5 percent CaO, SO3 aqua and 46/6 percent.

Gypsum and gypsum purity based on a defined percentage. America Building on Standards Association (ASTM) at least 70% purity required for gypsum in gypsum materials if the more stones are stones trade has 75 to 90 percent purity. Impurities in the gypsum more shale, clay and calcium carbonate



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